#+LAYOUT: post #+TITLE: Install Fest: Arch Linux #+DATE: 2017-01-06 18:35:20 +0530 #+AUTHOR: Yash Srivastav #+LIQUID: enabled #+WEBSITE: https://yashsriv.org #+SUBSECTION: installfest17 #+HIDDEN: true
Arch Linux should run on any i686 or x86_64 compatible machine with a minimum of 256 MB RAM, or 512 MB for x86_64. A basic installation with all packages from the base group should take less than 800 MB of disk space. As the installation process needs to retrieve packages from a remote repository, a working internet connection is required.
Note : All commands will look like this: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # some_command #+END_EXAMPLE The =some_command= portion is supposed to be typed after the prompt which is usually: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE root@archiso ~ # #+END_EXAMPLE
** Set the keyboard layout See Archwiki installation page if you really need this, i.e., your keyboard is not working as expected.
** Verify the boot mode
If UEFI mode is enabled on an UEFI motherboard, Archiso will boot Arch Linux accordingly via systemd-boot. To verify this, list the efivars directory: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # ls /sys/firmware/efi/efivars #+END_EXAMPLE
** Connect to the Internet
For wired connection with *DHCP* (for example - academic area), just connecting a LAN cord to your ethernet port should start the connection. You can verify connection on iitk network with the following command: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # ping 172.31.1.1 #+END_EXAMPLE For networks requiring static ip (such as your rooms), first stop dhcpcd service with ~systemctl stop dhcpcd@<TAB>~ (Here =<TAB>= refers to pressing the TAB key on the keyboard) and then see: [[https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Netctl#Wired][ArchWiki Network Configuration]] For wireless connections, use: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # wifi-menu #+END_EXAMPLE to connect to available networks. You can check connection using the previous command.
** Update the system clock
Use timedatectl(1) to ensure the system clock is accurate: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # timedatectl set-ntp true #+END_EXAMPLE To check the service status, use ~timedatectl status~.
** Partition the disks
You might have already partitioned your disks from windows if you have seen the parent guide of this post. So, you will have 3 partitions: * One partition for the root directory / - approx 50-100gb. * A swap partition of approximately your RAM size.
** Format the partitions
Once the partitions have been created, each must be formatted with an appropriate file system. For a list of partitions use: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # lsblk -o name,size,type,mountpoint,fstype NAME SIZE TYPE MOUNTPOINT FSTYPE sda 931.5G disk ├─sda1 260M part vfat ├─sda2 16M part ├─sda3 416.2G part ntfs ├─sda4 808M part ntfs ├─sda5 12G part swap ├─sda6 10G part ext4 ├─sda7 50G part ext4 ├─sda8 308.5G part ext4 ├─sda9 68.4G part ext4 ├─sda10 50G part ext4 ├─sda11 694M part ntfs └─sda12 13.6G part ntfs #+END_EXAMPLE Now, in the example above, my main harddisk is =/dev/sda=, yours can be anything. From now on, I will refer to it as =/dev/sdx= (=x= = variable corresponding to your harddisk). Now find the partitions you created. They will probably be the ones with the highest index (it's still your job to verify that). To format the main root partition (let it be /dev/sdxr) (the 50-100 gb one), use: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdxr #+END_EXAMPLE where =r= is the number of the root partition from the output of ~lsblk~ Swap partition is required if you have RAM less than 8 GB, else you can leave it out if you want. To format the swap partition (the partition with the same size as your RAM), use: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdxs #+END_EXAMPLE where =s= is the number of the swap partition from the output of ~lsblk~ To format the home partition, use: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdxh #+END_EXAMPLE where =h= is the number of the home partition from the output of ~lsblk~
** Mount the file systems
Mount the root partition to =/mnt=, for example: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # mount /dev/sdxh /mnt #+END_EXAMPLE Find out if your computer uses UEFI or not. The best way (I know) is to verify whether you have a =vfat= partition (as in my case =/dev/sda1=). If yes, then: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # mkdir /mnt/boot # mkdir /mnt/home # mount /dev/sdxh /mnt/home # mount /dev/sdxe /mnt/boot #+END_EXAMPLE (Here =/dev/sdxe= is the =vfat= partition) This new partition which we are mounting to boot is Windows EFI Partition which containes Windows Boot Manager. Also remember this info(whether you have a UEFI system or not) for one of the future steps. Mount the swap partition: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # mkswap /dev/sdxs #+END_EXAMPLE
** Select the mirrors
Packages to be installed must be downloaded from mirror servers, which are defined in =/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist=. Since we are in iitk, we will use the iitk mirrors. For that, use =nano=: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # nano /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist #+END_EXAMPLE And insert these line at the very top just below the initial comments in this order: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE Server = http://mirror.cse.iitk.ac.in/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch Server = http://ftp.iitm.ac.in/archlinux/$repo/os/$arch #+END_EXAMPLE
** Install the base packages
Use the pacstrap script to install the base package group and other useful stuff: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # pacstrap /mnt base dialog iw wpa_supplicant sudo #+END_EXAMPLE
** Configure the system
Generate an fstab file: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # genfstab -U /mnt >> /mnt/etc/fstab #+END_EXAMPLE
Change root into the new system: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # arch-chroot /mnt #+END_EXAMPLE
** Time zone
Set the time zone (probably =Asia/Kolkata=, since you live in India): #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Kolkata /etc/localtime #+END_EXAMPLE Run hwclock(8) to generate =/etc/adjtime=: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # hwclock --systohc --localtime #+END_EXAMPLE
Open =/etc/locale.gen= using =nano=: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # nano /etc/locale.gen #+END_EXAMPLE Go to the line and remove the first =#=: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE #en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8 #+END_EXAMPLE Generate localisations with (execute): #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # locale-gen #+END_EXAMPLE Open =/etc/locale.conf= using =nano= and add the following line: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE LANG=en_US.UTF-8 #+END_EXAMPLE
Create the =/etc/hostname= file. A hostname is a name for your pc (You can set that to anything consisting of only letters): #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE myhostname #+END_EXAMPLE You will need to add a matching entry to =/etc/hosts= (the last line): #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE 127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost ::1 localhost.localdomain localhost 127.0.1.1 myhostname.localdomain myhostname #+END_EXAMPLE
** Root password
Set the root password: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # passwd #+END_EXAMPLE
** Boot loader
If you have an Intel CPU, install the intel-ucode package #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # pacman -S intel-ucode #+END_EXAMPLE Now, you need to remember if you have a UEFI system or not.
***** No UEFI
#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # pacman -S grub os-prober ntfs-3g # grub-install --target=i386-pc /dev/sdx # grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg #+END_EXAMPLE Please replace =x= with the character of your harddisk.
#+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # pacman -S grub os-prober efibootmgr ntfs-3g # grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot --bootloader-id=grub # grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg #+END_EXAMPLE
***** After The above steps may sometimes fail to recognize windows. Don’t panic, see the reboot section.
** New User
Now, its time to create a new user: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # useradd -m -G wheel -s /bin/bash <username> #+END_EXAMPLE Here, a new user was added with the username you give and default shell =/bin/bash=. Just changing the username should suffice for most people. To change the user's password: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # passwd the_username_you_just_set #+END_EXAMPLE Now setup =sudo= by typing ~visudo~. This opens up the sudo configuration file in =vim=. Press =<Shift> + g= to goto the end of the file. Now go up, till you see this line: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE ## Uncomment the below line to allow members of group wheel to execute any command # %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL #+END_EXAMPLE Now, carefully place your cursor on the =#= just before =%wheel= and press =x=. This will remove the =#=. It will now look like this: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE ## Uncomment to allow members of group wheel to execute any command %wheel ALL=(ALL) ALL #+END_EXAMPLE Now type =:wq= to save and exit. This should give your user sudo rights.
Exit the chroot environment by typing exit or pressing =Ctrl+D=.
Optionally manually unmount all the partitions with ~umount -R /mnt~:
Finally, restart the machine by typing ~reboot~. Now while booting choose grub as the default boot option.
After booting, you will encounter a black screen with option to login. You can now log in with your user.
** Post Reboot GRUB Fix If your Windows did not show up during boot, run this command and check if windows shows up on a reboot: #+BEGIN_EXAMPLE # grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg #+END_EXAMPLE
See [[https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/General_recommendations][General Recommendations]] for system management directions and post-installation tutorials (like setting up a graphical user interface, sound or a touchpad).
For a list of applications that may be of interest, see [[https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/List_of_applications][List of applications]].